Local governments are embracing more modern and scalable ways to support their communities. In an effort to save both time and money, Costa Mesa Sanitary District (“CMSD”) used machine learning to automate and streamline manhole maintenance. Manhole maintenance is an essential part of the upkeep of cities. Manholes provide critical access points for underground public utilities, allowing inspection, maintenance, and system upgrades. But failure to upkeep manholes can cause a multitude of problems, from road hazards to sewer blockages, and can make it difficult for workers to access underground public utilities, which can lead to other safety issues. Manhole maintenance is an essential part of Costa Mesa Sanitary District maintenance, but this process requires the work of an outside consultant and costs the CMSD over $100,000.
ML to the rescue
CMSD, in collaboration with SpringML and Google Cloud, developed a project to streamline manhole maintenance by leveraging the power of machine learning (ML) to detect sewer manholes and rate their conditions. This solution saves CMSD $40,000 every year, freeing up funds for other public service projects.
Every quarter, one member of the CMSD drives a car outfitted with a GoPro camera. This car travels through the entire District area, which includes the city of Costa Mesa and small portions of Newport Beach, CA, which is about 218 street miles, and records the roads to detect approximately 5,000 manholes. At the end of the recording day, CMSD members transfer images and videos from the GoPro SD card into a local server. Then these files are automatically ingested into Google Cloud Storage for processing. From here, the machine learning algorithms detect which manholes need repair.
Google Cloud products are used throughout this project. Once the images and videos are in Google Cloud Storage, a workflow with Cloud Scheduler spins up the VM every night to detect if there are new videos on Cloud Storage. If there are, this triggers cloud machine learning, which reviews the numerous images and videos, rates each manhole, and determines if any require maintenance.
Machine learning to detect and grade manholes
SpringML applied a very systematic approach to detecting and grading the manholes. First, image processing ensures that the region of interest is only the section of the road in front of the vehicle to avoid any privacy concerns. Then SpringML applied a 5-step process using machine learning to detect and grade the manholes.
- SpringML developed two separate custom TensorFlow-based Mask R-CNN models. Mask-R-CNN is a deep neural network that is used for image segmentation tasks, which means it can separate different objects in an image or a video.
The first Mask-R-CNN model was created to accurately detect if an image showed a manhole cover. This was a critical step because sewer manhole covers look similar to water main covers. To make the model accurate, it was important that there be no false positives. SpringML used around 50 images of sewer manholes and other images to train and validate that the algorithm could successfully detect sewer manhole covers.
- Once a manhole is accurately detected, the surrounding area is masked using image processing to focus on the manhole and then the cropped images are sent to the second model which is used to detect damage in the area around the manhole, called the apron. To reduce the processing time, the second model only does the inference if a manhole cover is detected.
- The second Mask-R-CNN model uses CMSD Guidelines to decide what types of damage contributed to the rating system. For training purposes, SpringML uses a TensorFlow-Keras inside a Virtual Machine on Google Cloud. The initial model was trained and the Keras weights were saved on Google Cloud Storage. This helped create a versioned system of the models as the model gets refined over time.
- Then, duplicated detections are cleaned up to have a unique detection for each manhole cover.
- Finally, Manholes are graded from a 1-5 rating, with 5 representing high damage and 1 representing low damage.
A Smooth road ahead
Once cloud machine learning has analyzed the new videos and images, the final scores are stored in BigQuery. Results are then served to members of CMSD via a simple web application where they can see which manholes need to be maintained. Two staff members review the ML results and determine priorities for repairs. One of the most interesting features of this project is that the model gets continually retrained based on feedback submitted in the web application. For example, if the model inaccurately detects a manhole, a member of CMSD can mark that in the web application and their feedback is immediately used to refine the model.
This solution shows how leveraging machine learning can streamline a necessary local government project and save money and labor while being highly scalable! Not only does this system streamline the manhole maintenance process, but it also allows for more frequent review of manhole conditions and provides a historical view of how the District’s manholes change over time.
By: Bukola Ayodele (Developer Advocate)
Source: Google Cloud Blog